PFAS & Sampling Results

PFAS in Drinking Water

PFAS, or per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, are a group of man-made chemicals that are resistant to heat, water, and oil. For decades, they have been used in industrial applications and consumer products such as firefighting foam, stain repellants, waterproof clothing, metal plating, carpeting and non-stick cookware. PFAS does not breakdown in the environment easily, and some PFAS can build up overtime in our bodies, which can lead to various health risks.

PFAS may enter drinking water when products or waste materials containing PFAS are discarded, used, or accidentally spilled on land, which can then seep into the ground and infiltrate groundwater. When PFAS are discharged into lakes or rivers, they can contaminate local drinking water supplies. PFAS released by industrial facilities into the air may eventually find its way into rivers and lakes used for drinking water. 


PFAS Maximum Contaminants Levels

In August 2020, the Michigan Department of Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy (EGLE) established maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for seven PFAS compounds. On April 10, 2024, the U.S. EPA announced the final National Primary Drinking Water Regulation (NPDWR) for six PFAS.   

PFAS Compounds EGLE MCL Parts per Trillion (ppt) EPA  MCL Parts per Trillion (ppt)

PFNA

6ppt 10 ppt 

PFOA

8 ppt  4 ppt

PFHxA

400,000 ppt  N/A
PFOS 16 ppt 4 ppt 
 PFHxS  51 ppt 10 ppt 
 PFBS 420 ppt N/A
 HFPO- DA (commonly known as GenX Chemicals)  370 ppt  10 ppt
 Mixtures containing two or more of PFHxS, PFNA, HFPO-DA, and PFBS  N/A

 1 (unitless)

Hazard Index

 

The EPA PFAS regulation, established in 2024, sets a clear timeline for public water systems. They are required to start monitoring for PFAS compounds and complete initial monitoring by 2027. From 2027 onwards, public water systems must regularly inform the public about the levels of PFAS present in their drinking water.

Public water systems must implement solutions to decrease PFAS levels if monitoring reveals that they exceed MCLs by 2029. 

We took a proactive steps by initiating PFAS testing in 2018, a move that yielded reassuring results. The sampling results confirmed that PFAS compounds remain below the MCLs set by both EGLE and EPA, demonstrating the system's commitment to public health and safety.

For more on PFAS compounds, tests and other information, visit the State of Michigan's PFAS Response Team.


PFAS Sampling Results

In 2018, we launched our PFAS testing efforts. By 2019, the Michigan Department of Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy (EGLE) began a statewide sampling program, conducting monthly sampling in 2019, every other month in 2021, annually in 2022, and quarterly in 2023. In August 2020, EGLE established maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for seven PFAS compounds.

The sampling results confirmed that PFAS compounds remain below the MCLs established by EGLE and EPA. We will continue our rigorous PFAS sampling and ensure that the sampling results are available to the public. 

PFAS Sampling Results: April 2018 -  August 2020 

ND - Not Detected
NA - Not Applicable (Compound is not analyzed in the EPA 537 Method)
MCLs - Maximum Contaminant Levels

 PFAS Sampling Results: August 2020 - Present

Sampling Date Water Tested Method PFNA (MCLs is 6 ppt) PFOA (MCLs is 8 ppt) PFHxA (MCLs is 400,000 ppt) PFOS (MCLs is 16 ppt) PFHxS (MCLs is 51 ppt) PFBS (MCLs is 420 ppt) HXPO-DA (MCLs is 370 ppt) Compounds Tested
Aug-2020 Raw Water Isotope Dilution ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 24 compounds
Aug-2020 Treated Drinking Water EPA 537 2.19 ppt ND ND NA ND ND ND 14 compounds
Nov-2020 Raw Water Isotope Dilution ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 24 compounds
Nov-2020
Treated Drinking Water EPA 537 ND ND ND NA ND ND ND 14 compounds
Mar-2021 Raw Water Isotope Dilution ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 24 compounds
Mar-2021 Treated Drinking Water EPA 537 ND ND ND NA ND ND ND 14 compounds
Jul-2021 Raw Water Isotope Dilution ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 24 compounds
Jul-2021  Treated Drinking Water EPA 537 ND ND NA ND ND ND ND 14 compounds
Sep-2021 Raw Water Isotope Dilution ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 24 compounds
Sep-2021 Treated Drinking Water EPA 537 ND ND ND NA ND ND ND 14 compounds
Nov-2021 Raw Water Isotope Dilution ND ND ND NA ND ND ND 24 compounds
Nov-2021
Treated Drinking Water EPA 537 ND ND ND NA ND ND ND 14 compounds
Jul-2022 Raw Water Isotope Dilution ND 2.1 ppt ND 3.0 ppt ND ND ND 18 compounds
Jul-2022
Treated Drinking Water EPA 537 ND ND ND 2.6 ppt ND ND ND 18 compounds
Oct-2022 Treated Drinking Water EPA 537 ND ND ND 2.2 ppt ND ND ND 18 compounds
Feb-2023 Treated Drinking Water EPA 537 ND ND  
ND
2.5 ppt ND ND ND 18 compounds
May-2023 Treated Drinking Water EPA 537 ND ND ND 2.4 ppt ND ND ND 18 compounds
Aug-2023 Treated Drinking Water EPA 537 ND ND ND 2.1 ppt ND ND ND 18 compounds
 Oct-2023 Treated Drinking Water EPA 537  ND ND ND 2.8 ppt ND ND ND 18 compounds
Nov-2023 Treated Drinking Water EPA 537  ND 1.5 ppt 1.2 ppt 1.6 ppt  ND  ND  ND  18 compounds
Feb-2024 Treated Drinking Water EPA 537  ND ND ND 2.7 ppt  ND ND  ND  18 compounds
Apr-2024 Treated Drinking Water EPA 537  ND ND ND  2.7 ppt ND ND ND 18 compounds