Lead and Copper Rule


In 1991, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a regulation called the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) that requires water systems to control lead and copper in drinking water using corrosion control measures.

Corrosion in pipes can lead to the release of metals, including lead and copper, into water. Corrosion control treatment means adding a chemical at the water treatment plant to reduce pipe deterioration. Effective corrosion control limits corrosion in pipes and can reduce lead exposure in drinking water.

The Lead and Copper Rule focuses on lead because of lead’s potent toxicity, especially to children. Copper is an essential nutrient and is beneficial at appropriate doses, but exposure to too much copper can adversely impact health.


The Revised Rule

The revised Michigan Lead and Copper Rule was enacted in 2018 and created more requirements to reduce lead and copper levels in drinking water.

One of the new requirements for the revised LCR is how water samples are collected. The new sampling guidelines require that the first and fifth liter of tap water is collected in homes with lead service lines. The first liter represents water from household fixtures, and the fifth is likely to represent water from the lead line.

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Sampling Results

In 2022, 50 homes were sample in the city.

The final water sampling results did not exceed the allowable lead level of 15 parts per billion (ppb) or the allowable copper level of 1.3 parts per million (ppm). The EPA and the state of Michigan set the allowable levels. The water testing results for 2022 are 14 parts per billion (ppb) for lead and 0.0 parts per million (ppm) for copper.

Historical Lead Testing Results



Since 2019, the new sampling requirements have resulted in a slight increase in the lead levels detected in the system. The water sampling results do not exceed the allowable lead level of 15 (ppb).