Lead and Copper Rule


In 1991, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a regulation called the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) that requires water systems to control lead and copper in drinking water using corrosion control measures.

Corrosion in pipes can lead to the release of metals, including lead and copper, into water. Corrosion control treatment means adding a chemical at the water treatment plant to reduce pipe deterioration. Effective corrosion control limits corrosion in pipes and can reduce lead exposure in drinking water.

The Lead and Copper Rule focuses on lead because of lead’s potent toxicity, especially to children. Copper is an essential nutrient and is beneficial at appropriate doses. But, exposure to too much copper can adversely impact health.


The Revised Rule

The revised Michigan Lead and Copper Rule was enacted in 2018 and created more requirements to reduce lead and copper levels in drinking water.

The Lead and Copper Rule has new requirements for collecting lead and copper water samples. The first and fifth liter of tap water is collected in homes with lead service lines. The first liter represents water from household fixtures, and the fifth liter is likely to represent water from the lead line.


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Sampling Results

In 2021, 51 homes were sample in the City.

No water samples exceeded the allowable lead level of 15 parts per billion (ppb) or the allowable copper level of 1.3 parts per million (ppm). The EPA and the state of Michigan set the allowable levels. 

The water testing results for 2021 are 9 parts per billion (ppb) for lead and 0.0 parts per million (ppm) for copper.

Historical Lead Testing Results

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Since 2019, the new sampling requirements have resulted in a slight increase in the lead levels detected in the system. The water sampling results do not exceed the allowable lead level of 15 (ppb).